EXAM practice 2

Imagine that you have just delivered your piece of paper with the exam in it. Try to answer this question using the comments option.

Write about the following topic:

Hardware and software: authoring (10 marks)

Rememeber the more students you do this the better you’ll prepared you exams. Some of these questions could be asked them in the exam.


2 thoughts on “EXAM practice 2

  1. From MARIA DE DIEGO GONZALEZ.The choice of the hardware and the software can contribute to the formation of an author’s conceptualization of CALL. Software authoring tools give the CALL author the scope to design and write original CALL materials, although within a given framework.Usually some compromise has to be reached between the original conceptualization and the final implementation because of intrinsic limitations in the hardware or software, or simply because the complexity of the programming required to create certain functionality is beyond reach.With hardware the CALL author’s primary decision is whether to work within the constraints of existing hardware, or to ‘stretch’ the capabilities of the hardware so that it may more nearly approximate the author’s requirements. A good example of stretching existing hardware technology to meet certain goals is the TICCIT project, in which an adapted keyboard was created. Thus, standard equipment was adapted and deformed to meet particular goals. Under most circumstances, however, CALL authors rely on existing, commercially available hardware components.The most widely available microcomputers are those usually used for CALL, notwithstanding any other considerations, such as specific capabilities that might make a computer particularly useful for CALL applications.Authoring software or authoring tools allow new materials to be written for the computer. The extent to which an author becomes involved in the authoring process is determined by the authoring approach. Authoring systems have become more powerful and flexible although they still retain ‘templates’ and a limited range of interaction possibilities. An example is Authorware.Authoring systems can be divided into general systems and systems designed specifically for language learning. Versions are usually available across a number of hardware platforms and the second category can accommodate a wide variety of language scripts.Authoring programs tend to be smaller scale and more language-learning specific that authoring systems. They are usually formed around a language-learning activity, often in the form of a game. The teacher has to add the content which is then incorporated to the game and as in authoring systems; they shield the author from having to program the computer.An authoring language, or author language, is a highly specialized programming language that enables teachers with relatively little computing experience to produce CALL materials. Computer languages lie on a continuum that ranges from lists of computer instructions written in a machine code to languages that are more oriented towards the human use.Recently, as authoring tools have become more versatile and powerful, the earlier divisions between the different types of tool have become harder to identify. Now, typically, an authoring tool allows a number of levels of operation depending on the needs of the author. Another possible avenue of CALL authoring development involves artificial intelligence techniques.As Lian notes, there is a tendency for CALL practitioners to conceptualize CALL only in terms of a small single-user. But it is necessary to use high-powered workstations as a delivery medium, all connected to one another and to centralized software distribution facilities through a transparent high-speed networks. This sends us to the Internet and the World Wide Web.

  2. Hi María: Very good but I need you to write the answer in your own words. Don’t copy assorted sentences from the book and write them here. If you do that in the exam I will have to think you have copied directly book a book. Try to summarize everything you told here.

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